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  History of the City

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  During the first half of 19 century the city is finally formed as the industrial, trading and cultural centre not only in the Volga region, but also in Russia. Large industrial enterprises were based here.
  In the beginning of XX century brisk construction was conducted: rich private residences of merchants and noblemen, churches and cathedrals, mosques and madrasahs were erected, gardens and squares, on the squares monuments were established.
   Streets were shined with lanterns, not only gas ones, but also electric; since 1874 in the city the waterpipe operated, in 1875 the horse-railway opened, and in 1899 in Kazan streets the first tram appeared.
   In 1913 in the city 91 temple operated, including 67 Orthodox, 16 - Muslim. There was 143 educational institutions, among them 102 - schools; the university and Veterinary institute operated, and since 1906 - the higher female courses where university course was taught.
   In the city some Russian theatres worked, including, in summer in gardens and squares, in National theatre, lectures to workers by leading professors of city were read. In the beginning of century the Tatar professional theatre and the first newspapers and magazines in the Tatar language appeared, the tatar intelligency declared itself. The population of city in 1917 - 206 thousand persons.
  Significant step in the reconstruction of statehood of Tatar people became declaration of the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1920.
  The end of XX century opened new opportunities for development of statehood of Tatarstan. The Declaration on the state sovereignty of the republic August, 30, 1990 was accepted and signed. The referendum carried out in March, 1992 and the new Constitution of Tatarstan accepted on November 6, 1992 established, according to the national will, the new state status of the republic.
  February 15, 1994 the Contract between the Russian Federation and Tatarstan "About differentiation of subjects and mutual delegation of powers between bodies of the government of the Russian Federation and bodies of the government of Tatarstan" which, alongside with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Constitution of Tatarstan, formed a legal basis of formation of widely-known Russian-Tatarstan model of relations.


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