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  The M. Dzhalil`s Tatar Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre


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  The theatre history
  Before the establishment of the stationary Russian opera there had been a hundred years of regular public paid performances. The year of 1791 is considered to be the beginning of the public theatre in Kazan.
  
  In 1803 the theatre of the landowner P.P. Yesipov became famous, the serfs-actors performed there. Yesipov's theatre was a drama theatre, but operas were also staged there. It was the Yesipov's theatre where Kazan public heard the first Russian operas 'Miller, magician, cheat and matchmaker' by Ablesimov and Sokolovsky, 'St. Petersburg gostiny dvor' by Matinsky.
  
  In 1851 a very good building for a theatre was built. A new theatre was opened with the performance of an Italian opera company. For the first time Kazan people heard Italian singing. The public was interested very much in the unseen before artists. In the 8 hours after the book office opening all the tickets were sold out. The repertoire was classic Italian. An impresario P.M. Medvedev (1837-1906) was called 'The collector of the Russian stage'; in 1867 he managed the theatre business of Kazan. On August 26, 1874 the opera by Glinka 'Ivan Susanin' was performed in the Kazan theatre for the first time.
  
  Further success of Kazan opera was connected with the names of M. Borodai, N. Sobolschikov-Samarin. The conductors I. Palitsin, V. Suk, the director N. Bogolyubov, the singers O. Kamionsky, A. Krugloye, M. Maksacov, I. Tartakov, E. Kovelkova, and E. Stefanovich provided the glory of the theatre. Up to 1917 Kazan opera had been one of the leading provincial theatres.
  
  In 1934 the government resolution about opening the Opera and Ballet Theatre was approved. A year before, on November 4, 1933 it was resolved to establish Tatar opera studio attached to Moscow conservatory in order to prepare specialists for the future theatre.
  
  On February 2, 1934 the studio started working. The best Republic creative forces were sent to study to Moscow.
  
  The theatre opened with the opera by N. Zhiganov 'The Runaway'. From the first days the theatre became the center of musical culture in the republic, and gave the impulse to formation of the public taste and interests. The theatre became on the one hand the propagandist of the best works of Russian and foreign classics, on the other hand - the laboratory of creation national opera, ballet and musical comedy.
  
  The prominent musicians and theatre workers: composer N. Zhiganov, conductors S. Bergoly, I. Sherman, K. Tikhonov, I. Auhadeyev, F. Faslullin, directors F. Kaverin, I. Prostorov, N. Dautov, E. Kushakov, V. Raku, choreographers G. Tagirov, L. Zhukov, F. Gaskarov, L. Bordzilovskaya, S. Tulubieva; the scene-painter P. Speransky, A.Knoblok, E. Nagayev contributed considerably to the theatre development.
  
  In the post-war years the activity of theatre reached its flower. A distinguished pleiad of opera and ballet artists grew up on its repertoire: singers A. Abbasov, I. Ishbuliakov, K. Yakubov, V. Zharkov, B. Apollonov, V. Galkin, Z. Hismatullina, N. Yakusheva, V. Sharipova, G. Saifullina, F. Timirova, R. Bilyalova, O. Loginova, L. Bashkirova, N. Zaitseva; dancers A. Narykov, S. Khairullin, R. Sadykov, A. Monasypov, K. Gainullin, V. Bortyakov, V. Yakovlev, N. Yultyeva, A. Aidarskaya, G. Bashirova, G. Kalashnikova, K. Yanbulatova, I. Khakomova, S. Khantimirova.
  
  The ballet company started its independent work at the same time as the opera troupe. On March 12, 1945 the theatre performed the first Tatar national ballet 'Shurale' (libretto by A. Faizy).
  
  The guest choreographers K. Boyarsky, N. Konus, L. Yakobson, K. Ter-Stapanova, left the remarkable trace in the history of the ballet theatre. The performance 'Altynchech' was the first performance (September 28, 1956) played in the present building of the theatre (architects Skvortsonv and Gainutdinov), which had started to be built in 1936. Today it is an architecture monument, preserved by the State. In the same year according to the Decree of Presidium Of the Higher Council of the USSR theatre was given the name of the poet-hero Musa Dzhalil.
  
  In 1988 the Tatar opera and ballet theatre received the status of Academic theatre. In 1999 there were two events of cultural life of the Tatarstan: 60th anniversary of M. Dzhalil's Tatar Academic Opera and Ballet theatre and 125th anniversary of the constant opera seasons in Kazan.
  
  Address: Svoboda square, Kazan, 420015.

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